CHAPTER 16 - Study Questions
1. How did the CIO policy of equality for black members,
and the New Deal programs result in a change in party
allegiance by African Americans? 16.311 - 12
2. In what way did the NAACP persuade the Supreme Court
to end forms of racial discrimination in Missouri ex rel.
Gaines v. Canada (1938) and Sweatt v. Painter (1950)? 16.313
3.A. What did the Court rule about "separate but equal"
education for African Americans in Brown v. Board of Education
of Topeka (1954)?
3.B. What case did this decision overturn?
3.C. How did the Court plan to enforce this decision? 16.314 -15
4.A. How did Southern states respond to the Brown decision?
4.B. What was their claim of "states rights" really about?
4.C. What did they mean by "interposition?" 16.315
5.A. What did President Eisenhower do to enforce a court
order in Little Rock, Arkansas (1957)?

Dwight D. Eisenhower
5.C. And what did President Kennedy do to enforce a court
order at the University of Mississippi (1962)? 16.315

John F. Kennedy
6. How did Reverend Martin Luther King galvanize the African-American
community in Montgomery in 1955-56? 16.316

Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.
7.A. What was the general response by many white southerners
to "sit ins," and "freedom riders,"?
7.B. How did the March on Washington in 1963, and the
Selma to Montgomery march in 1965, focus the nation's
attention on the issue of civil rights? 16.317

March on Washington 1963
8.A. What did the Twenty-fourth Amendment provide for, and
also the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965?
8.B. How did the Department of Justice interpret the meaning the
Voting Rights Act? 16.317 - 19
9. The Court in Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S. (1964) and in South
Carolina v. Katzenback (1966) rejected what arguments, and upheld
which civil rights laws? 16.318 - 19
10. What was one evidence that the Civil Rights movement had
polarized the South in the elections of 1964, 1968, and 1972? 16.319
11.A. What is "institutional racism"?
11.B. What is the difference between liberty "from" and liberty "for"?
11.C. How was the War on Poverty intended to promote this
second liberty? 16.320
12.A. Who was the first black Supreme Court Justice?
12.B. Which President appointed him? 16.320
13. In what way was administrative action through "affirmative
action" an attempt to achieve equality of results as a remedy
for discrimination? 16.320
14.A. What is the difference between equality of opportunity
and equality of results? 16.321
14.B. Which one, or both, do you believe the Constitution should
15.A. How did other groups, especially women benefit, from the
Civil Rights Acts?16.323
15. B. What did the Court say about the rights of women in Craig v.
Boren (1976), Roe v. Wade (1973)?
16. How was the Twenty-Sixth Amendment (1971) a response to
the anti-war protests? 16.323 - 24
17.A. What is "rights talk"?
17.B. Why do people now prefer to describe their interests
in terms of rights? 16.324
18. What did the Court decide about apportionment of state
legislatures in Baker v. Carr (1962), and Reynolds v. Sims (1964)?
19. What did the Court say about the rights of the accused
in Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), and Miranda v. Arizona
(1966)? 16.325 - 26
20. From Sources read: Brown v. Board of Education p. 222 to understand the Court's rationale in overturning "separate but equal" and declaring that interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment as a mistake. Also read Cooper v. Aaron p. 225 to see the Court's rationale for denying that states have the final say on race, and the Civil and Voting Rights Acts, p. 226 to see how the Congress and the President responded to the Civil Rights Movement and the Courts reinterpretation of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Congratulations, I know you will do well!
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